The Hell is a Hois?

More Latin, and I don’t think this one will be so easy.  These two characters apparet in similitudine “hois.”  One of them is a hois pugnatis, portani arma – unless I got that wrong.  A combative hois carrying weapons, right?  But what the hell is a hois?


Near as I can tell:  “Strong Duke Ponicarpo appears in the likeness of a pugnacious (hois) carrying weapons.  Let therefore image (exealhris arma armta and faciat a pdicto) confers.  and (pipa) strongly bound infantry.  Gives love of women and true responses to questioning.  Has under him 30 legions.”

Some problems with this whole endeavor:  This was written by a speaker of 15th century Italian and may have some of that sprinkled in.  A few parts of the book are almost entirely in that language.  The writer’s understanding of Latin could be quite different from modern scholars.  Also there are clearly abbreviations and inconsistent spelling in parts.


“Saylmon or Zamon is a strong duke and president and/or earl appearing in the likeness of a (hois) riding on a pale horse, having the head of a lion and in the hand carrying an (aqbla), speaking in hoarse voice.  He makes peace between many and discords between men and women, and has under him 30 legions.”

By the way, don’t think the fact that one is holding weapons and one is riding a horse that this “hois” is humanoid.  It could be, but some of these demons are lions riding on horseback or gripping things.  It could well be a profession rather than an animal or other oddity.


  1. Old Classics Major says

    That would be called a scribal abbreviation, and I believe the swooped line over a word indicates a missing m and /or n. Latin scribal abbreviations were used fairly often if I recall. Do a quick search and you should find lots of info about them. Hope this helps.

  2. cartomancer says

    Yes. Someone beat me to it, but the line above the word is a space-saving measure among scribes. It denotes a missing M or N sound (and, like a modern apostrophe, can stand in for a block of letters as well as just one, in this case min). So “hominis” in the likeness of a man.

    And pedites are indeed infantry soldiers.

  3. xohjoh2n says

    fiat ergo imago ex ea hominis arma accita et faciat a predicto conferrori ; et per ipse poteris ligare pedites ?

  4. cartomancer says

    Ponicarpo dux fortis apparet in similitudine hominis
    pugnantis portantis arma. Fiat ergo imago ex ea habens
    arma acuta et faciat a praedicto consecrari et per ipsa
    poteris lignare pedites. Dat amorem mulierum, ac
    vera responsa de interrogatis. Habet sub se 30 legiones.

    Ponicarpo, the strong duke, appears in the likeness of a fighting man carrying weapons. Let there be, therefore, an image of him with sharp weapons, and let it be consecrated in the aforementioned way, and through it you will be able to bind footsoldiers. He gives the love of women and true replies in questioning. He has under him 30 legions.

    Saylmon, velut Zamon, dux fortis et preses atque comes
    apparet in similitudine hominis: equitat super equum
    pallidum, caput eius Leonis, in manu ferens aquila.
    loquitur rauca voce. facit pacem inter multos et
    discordes viros sine feminas, et habet sub se 30 legiones

    Saylmon, like Zamon, a strong duke and president and count, appears in the likeness of a man, riding on a pale horse, with the head of a lion, bearing an eagle in his hand. He speaks in a harsh voice. He makes peace among many and quarrelsome men without women, and has under him 30 legions.

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