When one thinks of religious people objecting to scientific views of the world, fundamentalist Christians and Muslims immediately come to mind. Jews are less often pictured because they seem to be less committed to fixed ideas about how the world works. But there is a sector of Jews who are as bad as other religions when it comes to rejecting accepted scientific views.
I first became aware of this some years ago when I was asked to evaluate the scientific curricula and teaching of Jewish day schools in the Cleveland area and found that the Orthodox schools tried to shield their students from the teaching of evolution and human sexuality. When these topics became relevant to the curriculum, science teachers would hand over the class to a rabbi who would give students the theologically correct view.
This was brought home to me again recently in the story about a woman who wrote in to correct a mistake in a joke because its premise was based on something that violated her religious beliefs. The joke was “Living on Earth is expensive, but it does include a free trip around the sun.” But someone who called herself ‘A Yiddish Girl’ wrote to gently chide the author of the joke, saying “I’m sure you didn’t realize, but as Jews we believe that the sun travels around the Earth, not like non-Jews who think that the world goes around the sun!”
This has caused some amusement but actually there is no preferred reference frame for describing motion so you can choose any frame of reference you like. Some frames are more suitable for some work than others. For example, for most things there is no problem with assuming the Earth is at rest. There is even no problem with assuming that the Earth is not rotating and geophysicists sometimes do so and add centripetal and Coriolis forces to explain patterns of air movement.
But when describing planetary motion, the heliocentric system in which the Sun is at rest and the Earth orbits it is the most convenient, though strictly speaking even here we should remember that the Earth and Sun both orbit their center of mass. But since the Sun is so much more massive than the Earth, the center of mass and the Sun’s center are very close together.
When it comes to studying our local Milky Way galaxy, we think of our Solar system as orbiting the center of the galaxy and when dealing with the dynamics of the universe as a whole, we treat our solar system, and indeed our entire galaxy, as a system in motion just like all the other galaxies. In that situation we can treat the cosmic microwave background as being at rest and galaxies as moving with respect to them.
So the choice of what to treat as being at rest is a matter of convenience. But to assert that any single planet or star or galaxy is at rest in some absolute sense, as Yiddish Girl seems to think, is to make an error.