Algae in the family Volvocaceae are (with one exception) little spheroids that swim around in freshwater lakes, ponds, and puddles. Volvox is by far the most famous of these algae, but there are a number of smaller genera, including Eudorina, Pleodorina, and Pandorina:
All of the members of this family have a problem: at the end of cell division, they find themselves in an awkward configuration, with their flagella on the inside. Each cell has two flagella, and the algae need them on the outside to be able to swim. They achieve this through a developmental process called inversion, essentially turning themselves completely inside-out during embryogenesis. Even the one member of the family that is not spheroidal, Platydorina (F in the figure above), undergoes inversion before flattening into a horseshoe shape. The ways in which they do this are complex and diverse (see for example “Pleodorina inversion” and “The most important time of your life“), but not the topic of this post.
The sister group to the Volvocaceae, the Goniaceae, also includes a spheroidal genus, Astrephomene (C in the figure above). Although Astrephomene looks a lot like some of the Volvocaceae, say Eudorina (I) or Pleodorina (J), it doesn’t undergo inversion!